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Paper   IPM / Astronomy / 16175
School of Astronomy
  Title:   Gas and dust cooling along the major axis of M33 (HerM33es): Herschel/PACS [CII] and [OI] observations
  Author(s): 
1.  C. Kramer
2.  T. Nikola
3.  S. Aalto
4.  S. Anderl
5.  F. Bertoldi
6.  M. Boquien
7.  J. Braine
8.  C. Buchbender
9.  F. Combes
10.  C. Henkel
11.  I. Hermelo
12.  F. Israel
13.  M. Relano
14.  M. Roellig
15.  E. Rosolowsky
16.  K. Schuster
17.  F. Tabatabaei
18.  F. van der Tak
19.  S. Verley
20.  P. van der Werf
21.  M. Wiedner
  Status:   Published
  Journal: Astronomy & Astrophysics
  Year:  2020
  Supported by:            ipm IPM
  Abstract:
M 33 is a gas rich spiral galaxy of the Local Group. Its vicinity allows us to study its interstellar medium (ISM) on linear scales corresponding to the sizes of individual giant molecular clouds. Aims. We investigate the relationship between the two major gas cooling lines and the total infrared (TIR) dust continuum. Methods. We mapped the emission of gas and dust in M 33 using the far-infrared lines of [C ii] and [O i](63 µm) and the total infrared continuum. The line maps were observed with the PACS spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. These maps have 50 pc resolution and form a ∼ 370 pc wide stripe along its major axis covering the sites of bright H ii regions, but also more quiescent arm and inter-arm regions from the southern arm at 2 kpc galacto-centric distance to the south out to 5.7 kpc distance to the north. Full-galaxy maps of the continuum emission at 24 µm from Spitzer/MIPS, and at 70 µm, 100 µm, and 160 µm from Herschel/PACS were combined to obtain a map of the TIR. Results. TIR and [C ii] intensities are correlated over more than two orders of magnitude. The range of TIR translates to a range of far ultraviolet (FUV) emission of G0,obs∼ 2 to 200 in units of the average Galactic radiation field. The binned [Cii]/TIR ratio drops with rising TIR, with large, but decreasing scatter. The contribution of the cold neutral medium to the [C ii] emission, as estimated from VLA H i data, is on average only 10

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