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Paper IPM / Physic / 15260  


Abstract:  
A fluctuation relation for the heat exchange of an open quantum system under a thermalizing Markovian dynamics is derived. We show that the probability of that the system absorbs an amount of heat from its bath, at a given time interval, divided by the probability of the reverse process (releasing the same amount of heat to the bath) is given by an exponential factor which depends on the amount of heat and the difference between the temperatures of the system and the bath. We also argue that the probability of the violation of the second law of thermodynamics (here in the form of net heat transfer from a cold system to its hot bath) drops exponentially with both the amount of heat and the temperature differences.
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