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Paper IPM / Physic / 14900  


Abstract:  
In this paper, we investigate the crossing statistics of speckle patterns formed in Fresnel diffraction region by a laser beam scattering through a nanofluid. We extend zero−crossing statistics to asses dynamical properties of nanofluid. According to joint probability density function of laser beam fluctuations and its time derivative, theoretical framework for Gaussian and nonGaussian processes are revisited for determining the magnitude of the moving particle's velocity. We count number of crossings not only at zero level but also for all available thresholds. Using probabilistic framework in determining crossing statistics, a priori Gaussianity is not essentially considered, therefore even in presence of deviation from Gaussian fluctuation, this modified approach is capable to compute relevant quantities such as mean value of velocity more precisely. Generalized total crossing which represents the weighted summation of crossings for all thresholds to quantify small deviation from Gaussian statistics is introduced. This criterion can manipulate the contribution of noises and trends to infer reliable physical quantities. The characteristic time scale for having successive crossings at given threshold is defined. In our experimental setup, we find that increasing sample temperature leads to more consistency between Gaussian and perturbative nonGaussian prediction. The maximum number of crossing does not necessarily occur at mean level indicating that we should take into account other levels in addition to zero level to achieve more accurate assessments.
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